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Saturday, January 26, 2008

Glossary D


Declaration of Helsinki
A set of guidelines adopted in Helsinki, Finland, in 1964. The Declaration addressed the ethics of clinical research and recommended specific safeguards, including informed consent.
A test that uses x-rays to look at the behavior of the rectum and anus during attempts to defecate.
An excessive loss of fluids in the body.
A disease in which blood glucose (blood sugar) levels are above normal. Type 2 diabetes, also known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is the most common form of diabetes.
The muscle wall between the chest and the abdomen.
Passing frequent and loose stools that can be watery. Acute diarrhea goes away in a few weeks, and becomes chronic when it lasts longer than 4 weeks.
Digital examination
Physical exam in which the doctor inserts his or her finger.
Expansion of an organ or vessel.
A condition of an organic being or of one of its parts that impairs normal living functioning.
A disturbance in regular or normal function. An abnormal condition.
Distal esophageal spasm (DES)
A rare motility (movement) disorder of the lower (distal) two-thirds of the esophagus. Occurring equally in men and women, the most common symptoms are chest pain and difficulty swallowing. Some patients may experience unusual symptoms like an unexplained cough.
An uncomfortable swelling in the intestines.
Small pouches in the colon.
Occurs when diverticula become infected or irritated.
A condition of having multiple diverticulum in the walls of the colon. Also called uncomplicated diverticular disease.
Singular of diverticula.
Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule that contains the genetic code for all life forms (except for a few viruses).
Double blinding
A process in a clinical study that conceals the treatment from both the patient and the investigator.
The first part of the small intestine.
Dysmotility (intestinal)
Abnormal contractions, of varying frequency and severity, of the muscles in the gastrointestinal tract, which may or may not be associated with symptoms. They differ from functional gastrointestinal disorders, which are defined by symptoms that may or may not have dysmotility, but which are also associated with low pain thresholds (visceral hypersensitivity). When occurring in the stomach or small intestine, dysmotility can result in disorders like gastroparesis or with or without symptoms such as bloating, pain, nausea, and vomiting due to either disorganized contractions, or weak contractions. When occurring in the large intestine, dysmotility can result in disorders like Hirschsprung's disease or colonic inertia that can produce symptoms of constipation, or other conditions that cause diarrhea. The abnormal motility involves changes in the contractions that either move or hold back stool. Abnormalities of "dysmotility" can be measured with special motility testing.
A term often used to describe pain or discomfort that occurs in the upper abdominal area.
Difficulty swallowing.
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