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Sunday, January 27, 2008

Glossary R


Radiation proctitis
Bleeding, mucous and bloody discharge, spasm of the rectal wall, urgency, and incontinence due radiation-induced damage to the rectum. Late symptoms result from scarring of the rectal and anal muscles with loss of some of the small blood vessels. The rectum becomes stiff and noncompliant (nonstretchable) and abnormal blood vessels may develop.
Random allocation
A method where all participants in a study have the same chance of being assigned to a study group, rather than allocation being assigned by the investigators,
Randomized controlled trial
A study in which people are allocated at random to receive one of several clinical interventions. One intervention is regarded as a standard of comparison or control.
A structure in each cell that selectively receives and binds a specific substance, such as a neurotransmitter.
The lower end of the large intestine, leading to the anus.
Resistant to treatment.
Resection, intestinal
The surgical removal of a diseased portion of the intestines.
Retrospective study
A study in which known outcomes are examined in hindsight using existing records. A retrospective study is usually less reliable than a prospective study.
A process in which chemical neurotransmitters, after transmitting their message, are taken up again by nerve endings, broken down, and inactivated.
Abbreviation for ribonucleic acid, the molecule that carries out DNA's instructions for making proteins.
Rome Criteria
Lists of symptoms among which a specified minimum number allows a diagnosis of a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

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